Salient characteristics of letters

Once a child understands that symbols/pictures have meaning, they may be ready to explore letters and words. Letters have consistent salient characteristics that the child must learn to recognize. Thinking in terms of straight lines, curves and how those connect is the beginning of understanding and recognizing print letters. Letters can be presented in a variety of shapes, sizes, and textures.

alphabet2imagesCAS007SX  magnet   

For children with CVI, exposure to this variety of shapes, sizes and textures must be paired with the reinforcement of which letter characteristics are consistent. It is not the color, the size, or the texture that makes a letter a letter. It is the straight lines, curves and how those connect.

Consideration needs to be given to the background on which letters are presented. Some children may need a solid colored background while others can discriminate the letter from a more complex background. The amount of space between letters and how many letters are presented at one time can also be determined through assessment.

Resources to try for literacy access: Build a toolbox!

Chapter 2: A Path to Literacy for Students Who Have CVI                                        Roman-Lantzy, C. (Eds.) (2018). Cortical Visual Impairment Advanced Principles, Louisville, KY: APH Press.

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 Word Bubbling

This tool is designed to assist in literacy education for students with CVI. It is being developed under the guidance of Dr. Christine Roman-Lantzy who originally developed the technique.

Note that this is an early testing version. The interface will improve before version 1 is released.

Disclaimer: This is being developed as an open source project by an employee of Google with Google’s permission but is not an official Google product.

Roman Word Bubbling – click here

Chapter 15 Assessments Linked to Interventions: Literacy and Math, Lizbeth A. Barclay                                                                                                              Lueck, A.H., & Dutton, G. N. (Eds.) (2015). Vision and the Brain: Understanding Cerebral Visual Impairment in Children. New York, NY: AFB Press.

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Reading using Recognition

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Voice Dream Reader


Beeline Reader

Children with typically developed vision take notice of letters and words everywhere. Remember to make children with CVI aware of environmental print too! Point out all the places where letters can be found in their world. “Begin early. Just as you describe and involve your child in other daily activities, tell her when you read the newspaper, follow a written recipe, make up a grocery list, read instructions for her newest toy, or write a note or email.” Stratton, J. M., & Wright, S. (1991). On the Way to Literacy: Early Experiences for Visually Impaired Children. Louisville, KY: American Printing House for the Blind.